Safeguarding against environmental risks

Safeguarding against human-related risks

Green Management and Development

Use of Resources

The theme largely refers to the protection of the environment from natural and human related factors. The term expands to also include the protection and management of natural and manmade entities with distinct cultural heritage value. It highlights the importance to strategize towards climate change and other environmental and human related risks through the scope of green management and sustainability.


Climate change is a prominent threat to cultural heritage sites. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global average temperature increase has reached 0.6 ± 0.2 °C over the twentieth century. Rising sea levels, droughts, fires and acid rain are some of the natural threats to cultural heritage.


Following the hiatus imposed by COVID-19 pandemic, new strategies are needed to avoid going back to issues like overtourism, which are also related to the increasing carbon footprint that stems from heavy tourist influx and contributes to climate change. This direct case of pollution/ damage of ecosystems concerns not only the local communities, but also larger entities that have the capacity to implement regulations and in-depth changes.

“In the case of Santorini, tourism is overwhelming. There has to be a limit on daily arrivals and cruise ship visits have to be avoided as they pollute and do not contribute to the prosperity of the island. Additionally, cultural and archaeological sites have to methodically be taken care of in terms of access and protection”.

Ioannis Bitis

ELLINIKI ETAIRIA - Society for the Environment and Cultural Heritage - local branch, Santorini, Greece

A good practice to counter the effects of climate change is the Hungarian programme “County-level Climate Protection Platforms” which started in 2016. The general aim of the program is to establish county-level platforms with the involvement of local stakeholders and elaborate climate protection action plans. Each Platform is required to carry out activities: at least two conferences, three workshops and four awareness raising actions or campaigns.


The City of Buzet (Croatia) established a strategic and planning document (2016-2020) which recognised the importance of the protection of natural and cultural heritage together with the quality of life and the increase of economic competitiveness. From these main principles and values, Buzet created its vision of a modern city of satisfied people, competitive economy, and attractive natural and cultural heritage, whose development stems from traditional values and sustainable development.

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